The diseases dealt by endocrinology and metabolism diseases department are very common and their prevalence is ever increasing in our country, as is the case with around the world. Such diseases are very prevalent and endocrinology and metabolism diseases department deals with a very wide range of diseases that involves many systems and organs.


What is Endocrine System?

Endocrine system is formed by internal secretory glands.

Internal secretory glands synthesize and secrete hormones. Hormones regulate various activities in our body. Certain types of hormones regulate reproduction, metabolism, growth and development. Hormones also control our reaction to the environment and help supply of energy and nutrition sufficient to maintain functions of our body. Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries and testicles, adrenal glands, fat tissue as well as endothelium (cells lining innermost wall of vessels) are secretory glands that form the endocrine system.


Who are Endocrinologists?

Endocrinologist is a specialist dealing with the endocrine system. Endocrinologists diagnose diseases that affect the endocrine glands. They are trained to treat various diseases which are generally complex and affect several systems in our body. Your primary physician refers you to an endocrinologist when you experience a problem related to the endocrine system.


What Kind of Medical Education Do Endocrinologists Study?

Endocrinologists study internal medicine for four or five years following 6 years of medical education. They spend further three years to learn how to diagnose and treat hormonal problems. It takes more than 13 years in total to be an endocrinologist.


What Do Endocrinologist Deal With?

Endocrinologists are trained to diagnose and rehabilitate hormone imbalance and related problems. They handle numerous types of cases.

  • Thyroid:
    • Thyroid nodules (ultrasound-guided thin needle aspiration biopsy specimen obtained to evaluate the condition (TFNAB))
    • Thyroid cancers
    • Thyroiditis
    • Thyrotoxicosis
    • Hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease, Toxic Adenoma, Toxic Multinodular Goiter, Thyroid Storm)
    • Hypothyroidism (Primary Hypothyroidism, Central Hypothyroidism, Congenital Hypothyroidism, Myxedema Coma)
    • Goiter, iodine metabolism
  • Parathyroid Diseases
    • Hyperparathyroidsm
    • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Diabetes Mellitus (moreover, Insulin Pump Treatments):
    • Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose)
  • Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
  • Disorders of Lipid Metabolism
  • Metabolic Disorders
  • Over- or under-production of hormones
  • Osteoporosis (bone loss)
  • Bone Tissue Diseases
    • Osteomalacia
    • Paget’s disease
  • Adrenal gland diseases
    • Adrenal gland adenomas
    • Incidentaloma
    • Cushing syndrome
    • Addison’s disease
    • Adrenal crisis
    • Mineralcorticoids and related abnormalities (aldosteronism)
    • Pheochromocytoma
    • Multiple endocrine system diseases
  • Tumors of pituitary gland
    • Acromegaly
    • Prolactinoma
    • Non-functional pituitary adenoma
  • Infertility
  • Growth retardation (short posture).
  • Tumors of secretory glands
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic syndrome and its treatment
    • Endocrinologists may also order certain tests to examine how endocrine glands function.


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