Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinic
Hematology is a branch of science dealing with blood and structure of bone marrow and their duties in body.
Numerous blood diseases are diagnosed and treated in Pediatric Hematology-Oncology clinic, including but not limited to nutritional anemias (Iron Deficiency Anemia, Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia), Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Aplastic Anemia, Thalassemia (Mediterranean Anemia), Hemophilia.
After examinations of pediatic patients are performed at our clinic, treatment methods to be performed are planned. Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinic has been designed as a special area with cutting-edge technology and medications can be prepared for child patients in sterile conditions by chemotherapy nurses.
The area has been specifically designed in Emsey Hospital for needs of children and to boost their life quality within the period of time in which they stay at hospital.
Primary Diseases Diagnosed and Treated at Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinic of Emsey Hospital
Red blood cells and disorders related to them:
Red blood cells include haemoglobin proteins that give the red colour to the blood. Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide between tissues. They carry the carbon dioxide in tissues to lungs while they transmit the oxygen to the tissues from lungs.
Therefore, in disorders of those cells:
Anemia occurs with reducing in red blood cell count, fatigue, tiredness, poor exercise capacity, paleness, palpitation, decrease in success at school, memory impairment, bad temper, short posture, growth and developmental retardation may occur as nutrients and oxygen cannot sufficiently reach the organs. The most frequent causes of anemia: Iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid deficiency, zinc deficiency.
Moreover, as a result of abnormal destruction of red blood cells: Diseases such as haemolytic anemia, G6PD deficiency, hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune haemolytic anemia can develop.
Diseases such as thalassemia (Mediterranean Anemia) sickle cell disease, fanconi aplastic anemia, aplastic anemia (bone marrow dysfunction) or polycytemia are also included in subjects of hematology.
Disorders related to white blood cells:
White blood cells are main self-defence weapons of our body. There are many types. Each cell has a different duty. They both produce the self-defence weapons that we call antibodies and they embody and digest the microbes on their own. In functional or quantitative disorders of white blood cells: Symptoms such as frequent health disorders, frequent fever, recurrent infections, aphta in mouth, recurrent otitis media-pneumonia-diarrhea, inability to gain weight and weight loss, skin inflammation can be observed.
Moreover, abnormal amount of white blood cells (leukocytosis) should also be examined carefully.
Disorders related to platelets and bleeding:
Platelets are the smallest fragmented cells of blood. Vascular system hinders bleeding in cooperation with platelets and coagulation factors.
In case of any disorder in these systems: Nasal bleeding, umbilical hemorrhage, bruising on body, long-lasting menstrual bleeding, deterioration in preoperative bleeding examinations, long-lasting bleeding following surgery and circumcision, gastric and intestinal bleeding, bleeding from urinary tracts, intraarticular bleeding and similar conditions occur.
Diseases related to coagulation:
Vascular occlusion in any part of body (thrombosis), stroke, occlusion in pulmonary vessels (pulmonary embolism), occlusion in renal veins (renal vein thrombosis), diseases like thrombophlebitis and hereditary conditions causing tendency to coagulation are included in the subjects of hematology.
Cancer means a group of diseases characterized with uncontrolled, invasive, abnormal cell division. The most common cancer types in pediatric age group are leukemia, central nervous system tumors, lymphoma. Moreover, many cancer types can be seen amongst children, although more rarely.
Hearing and accepting the diagnosis of cancer is very difficult for families and children. However, remember that you are not along in this challenging path and cancer is now less frightening thanks to advancements in both diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Early diagnosis of cancer can increase success rates.
In which conditions we should most frequently suspect cancer? One or more signs and symptoms can be noted depending on type, onset and spread regions of the diseases.
For instance, frequently seen symptoms in cancers involving bone marrow such as leukemia are;
- Pallor, fatigue,
- Frequent fever, Bone pain,
- Bruising in skin,
- Swellings that are generally painless in lymph nodes,
- Swelling in any part of body,
- Nasal, gingival bleedings, blood in urine and stool without underlying reasons.
In brain tumors which are relatively common in pediatric patients;
- Headache and vomiting severer in the mornings,
- Visual impairments,
- Gait disorders, imbalance,
- Strabismus, non-febrile convulsion, personality changes can be seen.
Also: Brightness in pupils such as cat’s eye in light or involuntary movements, dark-colored bruising around the eye can be important signs.
After patients for whom cancer is suspected are examined and tests are performed for differential diagnosis, the patients are evaluated with Radiation Oncologists, Pediatric Surgeons, Nuclear Medicine Specialists, Radiologists in addition to Pediactic Hematology and Oncology physicians and the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic methods are determined.
Chemotherapy drugs used for pediatric cancers are prepared with robotic methods at our clinic. Moreover, they are administered by radiotherapist, surgical therapy and nuclear medicine specialists.
Preparation protocols that are planned specifically for each patient in accordance with type of diseases and prior therapies are administered at HEPA-filtered Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit. Bone marrow transplantation unit has been decorated specifically to ensure that children can meet their needs at hospital and their life qualities are increased.