Rheumatology

 

Rheumatology is the branch of science that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory joint rheumatisms. Inflamed joint rheumatisms are chronic diseases that usually last a lifetime. Sometimes it can start acutely. There is an inflammation produced by the non-microbial body itself. In the course of the disease, there may be joint damage as well as organ involvement and damage. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is important.

 

The aim of treatment is to protect the joint functions of the patient and to prevent organ involvement. The most commonly involved organs are eyes, skin, lungs and kidneys. Rarely, vital organ involvement such as Heart and Brain can be seen. The best thing to do to prevent rheumatic diseases is not to smoke.

 

Common rheumatic diseases are Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Gout, Behçet's Disease, Familial Mediterranean Fever, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Although its frequency varies, rheumatic diseases can be seen at any age. Genetic factors are at the forefront in some rheumatic diseases (Familial Mediterranean Fever, Ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet's disease). Pain medications that suppress inflammation, cortisone drugs and drugs that suppress immunity are used in the treatment.

 

Arthralgia 'joint pain; 'Arthritis' means joint inflammation. In case of arthritis, in addition to pain in the joints, there are additional symptoms such as swelling, tenderness, increase of temperature, redness, and limitation of movement.

 

"Rheumatoid Arthritis" is one of the common rheumatic diseases known as "inflammatory rheumatism" among the public. It usually starts with pain and swelling in the small joints of the hands and feet, stiffness in the joints in the morning and gradually spreads to other joints. It is a chronic arthritis and usually requires lifelong treatment. If not treated, deformity and loss of function may develop in the joints in the following years. Eye and lung involvement may accompany. Chronic arthritis in connective tissue diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Sjogren's Syndrome, Scleroderma are rheumatological diseases that require lifelong treatment with skin and organ involvement.

 

Ankylosing spondylitis is a rheumatic disease that causes chronic low back pain and especially involves the spine. Heel pain, pain and swelling in the knees and ankles may also develop. It can cause eye inflammation called uveitis. AS is known to occur more frequently in genetically inclined individuals. The HLA-B27 gene is one of the genetic factors that increase susceptibility.

 

Behçet's disease is common in our country. It is a disease with recurrent mouth sores (aphthae), genital wounds, acne and glands on the skin, joint swelling and eye inflammation (uveitis). Symptoms usually begin at a young age, and eye involvement is important in terms of causing vision loss.

 

n gout, which develops as a result of increased uric acid in the blood due to metabolic disorder, acute arthritis attack may develop, especially in the first toe. The disease can become chronic with recurrent attacks.

 

Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a disease characterized by recurrent fever, abdominal pain, joint pain and swelling. It is a common genetic disease in our country. Usually the first symptoms manifest in childhood.  If diagnosed late or treated inadequately, Amyloidosis may develop and cause kidney failure. Those with FMF in their family must be evaluated by a rheumatologist.



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